Find us on:


The State-of-the-art Pharmacotherapeutic Options for the Treatment of Chronic Non-Cancer Pain

The State-of-the-art Pharmacotherapeutic Options for the Treatment of Chronic Non-Cancer Pain
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Type
Reported as
March 31, 2022
RS D'Souza, B Langford B, RE Wilson, YF Her, J Schappell, JS Eller, TC Evans, JM Hagedorn
Mayo Clinic Hospital; Spine Pain Physicians

Pharmacotherapeutic options continue to expand for the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain. There has been an increasing emphasis on multimodal analgesia. This strategy employs use of multiple analgesic medications each with a distinct mechanism of action, which when administered concomitantly may provide profound analgesia. The authors describe evidence from randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews on a variety of established medications including anti-inflammatory agents, opioids, anti-convulsants, anti-depressants, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, sodium channel blockers, cannabinoids, and alpha-2-receptor blockers. Furthermore, they provide developing evidence on more novel pharmacotherapeutics including alpha lipoic acid, acetyl-L-carnitine, low dose naltrexone, calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists, targeted toxin therapy, Nav1.7 inhibitors, neurotensin agonists, purinoceptor antagonists, and sigma-1 receptor antagonists. Furthermore, the authors review the safety and adverse effect profile for these agents. In this era of the opioid epidemic, clinicians should first offer non-opioid analgesics and employ a multimodal analgesic strategy. Current guidelines recommend a personalized approach to the chronic pain treatment, in each case accounting for type, location, severity, and chronicity of pain. Clinicians should also carefully consider the risk-to-benefit ratio to the patient based on the drug side effect profile, patient age, and comorbidities. In accordance with the stepwise approach outlined by the World Health Organization (WHO) analgesic ladder, clinicians should administer non-opioid analgesics plus adjuvant analgesics initially for mild pain, followed by adding weak opioid agonists for moderate pain, and strong opioid agonists and minimally invasive interventions for severe pain.

quick weight loss centers diet plan 2 day diet japan lingzhi original pills ice vest weight loss seth rogen weight loss lymphatic massage for weight loss hypothyroid diet pills list of vegetables for weight loss bcaa for weight loss bryan lanning weight loss resistance band weight loss best waist cincher for weight loss high fat vegan diet weight loss weight loss pills dangers italian weight loss pills fastin diet pills at walgreens where can i buy pure garcinia cambogia envy diet pills reviews best weight loss diet pill what are the top 5 diet pills good weight loss pills that work fast dr oz keto boost food suppressant pills

vape no A Tag

is sex good for depression male ejaculation gif online medications natural erection supplement penis me plz avarage sized penis sildenafil effects penis enlargement pill work how to get your penis larger effects of lack of sex on a man all sexes buy big penis male sexual supplements what is the average male penis length male enhancement strip cheap male enhancement pills things to do other than sex nugenix safe boost revolution number blue mass pills p6 test booster libido drugs

vape pen cbd oil cbd wholesalers best selling cbd oil carolina hope cbd oil hemp oil without cbd putting cbd oil in coffee cbd oil hormones giant gummy bear is hemp cbd the same as weed cbd cannabidiol cbd companies cbd oil wholesale colorado hemp oil for chronic pain meaning of mind cbd oil in tulsa weed liver damage j exp clin canc res medical seizure definition smokiez edibles queen city hemp cbd oil hester street fair cbd festival cbd oil gut dysbiosis cbd oil mississippi